Dr. Gustav Zander, a Swedish physician known for inventing mechanotherapy, which was defined in 1890 as “the employment of mechanical means for the cure of disease.” Zander exhibited his exercise machines at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia where they won a gold medal. By 1906 Zander had established his first gyms with these machines in 146 countries.
In the end of the 19th century due to major waves of immigration, lower Manhattan was densely packed with slums. there were too many people and not enough place for everyone. Landlords bought up buildings and divided them into small parts for people to live in. But very often they were overcrowded and living conditions in these dingy, dark and unventilated rooms were really bad.This is the story of New York slums documented by a police reporter Jacob A. Riis who wanted to expose abject poverty of those people. This photo-essay is called "How the Other Half Lives."