Finally, the tedious paste-up process starts. Placing each story, headline or pre-scanned photograph on the page as specified on the page dummy. Every element must be perfectly straightand spaced properly. Today, all of this (and everything else shown in these photos) can be done easily and quickly with desktop publishing software and an inexpensive home computer. Tthis process is primitive by today's standards. Many campus newspapers have been fully paginated (produced entirely by computer with no paste-up) since the late 1980s.