Maximilien de Robespierre was a French politician and lawyer, best known for his role in the French Revolution (1789 - 1799) and the Reign of Terror. He was executed by guillotine on July 28, 1794 at the age of 36.
Scientists used his death mask, as well as historical records detailing Robespierre's medical history to reconstruct his face and determine the illnesses he suffered.
Several clinical signs were described by contemporary witnesses: vision problems, nose bleeds (“he covered his pillow of fresh blood each night”), jaundice (“yellow colored skin and eyes”), asthenia (“continuous tiredness”), recurrent leg ulcers, and frequent facial skin diseases associated with scars of a previous smallpox infection. Historians speculate that he suffered from sarcoidosis. He also had permanent eye and mouth twitching. The symptoms worsened between 1790 and 1794. The day before his beheading, Robespierre suffered a firearm wound to the jaw in dubious circumstances.