In the end of the 19th century due to major waves of immigration, lower Manhattan was densely packed with slums. there were too many people and not enough place for everyone. Landlords bought up buildings and divided them into small parts for people to live in. But very often they were overcrowded and living conditions in these dingy, dark and unventilated rooms were really bad.This is the story of New York slums documented by a police reporter Jacob A. Riis who wanted to expose abject poverty of those people. This photo-essay is called "How the Other Half Lives."
These bathing machines were very popular in England at 18th and 19th centuries. They allowed people to change out of their usual clothes into swimwear and were directly lowered into the water. This was part of a beach etiquette and served especially for women not to be seen by men in ‘improper clothing.’ Because in those days, many beaches of Europe were gender-segregated with women required to wear shapeless bathing suits to preserve a sense of modesty.