Either caused by a physical injury or a phobia, these disorders have really bizarre symptoms.
Sexsomnia is a disorder in which people participate in sexual acts (either solo or with a partner) while sound asleep. It is classed as one of many parasomnias, which also include things like sleep-walking and talking. Though this is a relatively new syndrome (officially identified in 2003) it has already been accepted as a defense against some alleged rape cases.
Fish Odor Syndrome (Trimethylaminuria)
Trimethylaminuria is a rare metabolic disorder that causes a defect in the normal production of a specific enzyme. Long story short, when the body can't break down trimethylamine during food digestion, the compound builds up and is released in the person's sweat, urine, and breath, giving off a strong fishy body odor.
The odor varies from person to person; in one, it will just smell like terrible body odor, but in most people it gives off a noticeable pungent fish odor.
Exploding Head Syndrome
Exploding Head Syndrome is a parasomnia disorder that causes sufferers to hear loud, explosion-like noises that seem to originate from within their own head. The "explosions" usually occur right after the victim has fallen asleep and sound like a roar, gunshot, loud voices or screams, a ringing noise, or the sound of electrical buzzing.
While victims of this syndrome aren't physically injured, they tend to experience fear and anxiety after such attacks. There is no known cause or cure for this condition, though it has been linked to stress and fatigue and often vanishes without treatment.
Foreign Accent Syndrome
Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a speech disorder that is often a side effect of severe brain injury, such as stroke or head trauma. FAS causes sudden changes in speech patterns, intonation and pronunciation so that the victim suddenly starts speaking with a "foreign" accent. FAS typically develops within one or two years after the injury and is often incurable.
Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome
Non-24 is a chronic circadian rhythm sleep disorder defined as "a chronic steady pattern comprising one-to-two-hour daily delays in sleep onset and wake times in an individual living in society." The pattern of delay persists "around the clock," taking several weeks to complete one cycle. This disruption of the body clock causes cyclical bouts of nighttime sleeplessness and excessive daytime fatigue and napping.
It is a neurological sleep disorder that has been traced to genetic abnormalities that affect specific factors in the brain. While anyone can be diagnosed with Non-24, the disorder affects proportionately more totally blind individuals than sighted.
Genital Retraction Syndrome
People who suffer from Genital Retraction Syndrome (GRS) are overcome by the fear that their external genitals (and the breasts, for women) are shrinking and/or retracting into the body to the point of complete disappearance. GRS is a mental condition prevalent in cultures that are often without sufficient medical resources and who attribute the condition to voodoo, witchcraft, or superstition. In Asia and Africa there have been widespread instances of this syndrome called "Penis Panics."
Gourmand syndrome is a rare condition that sometimes occurs in people who sustain injuries to the right frontal lobe. These people develop a new, post-injury passion for gourmet food. Lesions or injuries to this specific portion of the brain cause an intense preoccupation with food and a preference for fine eating.
The condition is considered "benign" or not harmful, but it sounds pretty painful for the wallet.
Walking Corpse Syndrome (Cotard's Syndrome)
People who suffer from Cotard's Syndrome have the delusional belief that they are dead, do not exist, are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs. There may also be sensory hallucinations, for instance, they might think that they smell of rotting flesh. The disorder tends to occur intermittently rather than being chronic and may be a feature of mood disorder, schizophrenia or organic disorders.
Busy Life Syndrome
Since the main symptoms of this lifestyle syndrome are forgetfulness and lack of concentration, we're pretty sure we all have it. According to researchers: “Forgetfulness is an ordinary part of getting older but anecdotal evidence suggests that it is now affecting people earlier in life as a result of busy work and home lives, and so-called 'information overload' from the various media channels we consume today,” lead researcher Dr. Alan Wade said.
The recommended treatment is a drug called memantine, which is also used to treat Alzheimer's Disease.
Moebius syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that is present at birth. People with the condition are unable to move their faces (they can't smile, frown, suck, grimace or blink their eyes) and are unable to move their eyes from side to side. There may be skeletal problems as well, causing hand/feet anomalies such as club feet. Respiratory problems, speech and swallowing disorders, visual impairments, sensory processing disorder, sleep disorders, and weak upper body strength may also be present. Approximately 30% of children with Moebius syndrome are on the autism spectrum.